May 30, Chamba embroidery designs were based on nature, mythology, gave birth to an intricate form of needlework known as the Chamba Rumal. Explore ANTARA’s board “CHAMBA RUMAL” on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Embroidery patterns, Textile design and Textiles. Feb 7, The Chamba Rumal or the Chamba Handkerchief is an embroidery handicraft that rose to prominence under the patronage of the former rulers.
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The Chamba Rumal or Chamba handkerchief is an embroidered handicraft that was once promoted under the patronage of the former rulers of Chamba kingdom. It is a common item of gift during marriages with detailed patterns in bright and chakba colour schemes. Earliest reported form of this rumal is the one made by Bebe Nankisister of Guru Nanak in the 16th century, which is now preserved in the Gurudwara at Hoshiarpur.
The handkerchiefs were made in geometrical shapes of square and rectangle using very fine hand made silk which was obtained from the Punjab or muslin cloth, a product of Bengal. Women created highly ornamental patterns using untwined thread made of silk produced in Sialkot in PakistanAmritsar and Ludhiana.
The dohara tanka method is a heritage of Kashmirwhich was adopted in Basohli and Chambabut was improved upon by adopting themes from the special Mughal art of Chamba miniature paintings ; this art form flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Following the downfall of the Mughal empire many expert artists of this craft migrated to the hill region of Himachal Pradesh. Raja Umed Wmbroidery of Chamba —68 patronized the artists. These artists drew the outlines embroiderg the design on the fabric to be embroidered using fine charcoal and also suggested suitable colours to be adopted on the mythological themes of Krishna ‘s ebmroidery of the epic Mahabharataand themes from Ramayana or scenes of marriage and game embridery to be embroidered; themes also included events from Gita GovindaBhagvat purana or only Radha-Krishna and Shiva – Parvati.
Inspiration cbamba also provided from the frescoes done in the Emroidery Mahal of Chamba. Following Indian Independencethis art work lost its royal patronage, and quality deteriorated due chzmba commercialization by making many cheaper varieties such as table cloths, cushion covers, clothing, and even various machine made items to compete in the market with cheaper similar work from other regions.
To revive this art work, in the later part of s, at the chaamba of Usha Bhagat a friend of Indira Gandhithe DCC located the original designs of this art work from museums and collections, and women artists were then trained in this art work.
As a result embroldery designs have been recreated and quality restored. Known as a “needle wonder” Chamba Rumal is now made in square and rectangular shapes. The materials used still consist of muslin, malmal, khaddar a coarse fabricfine charcoal or brush, and silk threads without knots.
Using a double satin stitch for the embroidery, both faces of the cloth are concurrently stitched by a forward and backward technique to maintain uniformity of design on both faces of the rumal. After completing the embroidery, the fabric is stitched with a border of about 2 to 4 inches on all sides. Muslin — Muslin is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
It is made in a range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. It gets its name from the city of Mosul, Iraq, early muslin was handwoven of uncommonly delicate handspun yarn, especially in the region around Dhaka, Bengal.
It was imported into Europe for much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, fine linen muslin was formerly known as sindon.
The Little Known Story of Himachal Pradesh’s Unique Handkerchiefs That Were Embroidered by Queens
Inthe art of weaving Jamdani muslin in Bangladesh was included in the list of Masterpieces of the Oral. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman made note of the origin in Bengal.
Bengali muslin was traded throughout the Muslim world, from the Middle East to Southeast Asia, in many Islamic regions, such as in Central Asia, the cloth was named Daka, after the city of Dhaka. Some believe Crusaders of the First Crusade found the cloth in the Middle East, subsequently, the word Muslin found its place in various European languages as French mousseline, Italian mussolina etc. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Mughal Bengal emerged as the foremost muslin exporter in the world, during the Roman period Khadi muslin was introduced in Europe and a vast amounts of fabrics were traded to Europe for many centuries.
It became highly popular in 18th-century France and eventually spread across much of the Western world, brutality to muslin weavers was intense, William Bolts noting in that instances have been known of their cutting off their thumbs to prevent their being forced to wind silk. As a result, the quality of muslin suffered greatly and its embroidey was nearly lost for two centuries, there have been various attempts at reviving the muslin industry in modern Bangladesh.
At the end of the 16th century the English traveler Ralph Fitch greatly admired the muslin of Sonargaon, the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa described the muslin cha,ba Bengal in the early 16th century.
He mentioned a few types of fabrics, such as estrabante, mamona, fugoza, choutara, in present day, many different types of muslins are produced in many different places, including Dhaka.
The word muslin is used colloquially. Under British rule, the British East India company could not compete with the local Muslin with their own export of cloth to Enbroidery, Muslin production was repressed and the knowledge eradicated.
Local weavers were systematically rounded up and their hands mutilated with removal of their thumbs, when sewing clothing, a dressmaker may test the fit of a garment, using an inexpensive muslin fabric before cutting pieces from ruma fabric, thereby avoiding potential costly mistakes.
Chamba Rumal – WikiVisually
His birth is celebrated world-wide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, Guru Nanak has been called one of the greatest religious innovators of all time. He travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in one of His creations. He set up a spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness. His father was the local patwari for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi and his parents were both Hindus and belonged to the merchant caste.
He had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, who was five years older than he was, in she married and moved to Sultanpur. Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, at the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanakis husband.
This was a time for Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests. According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanaks life were marked with events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life details of his blossoming awareness from a young age.
At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects, at age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school as was the custom.
At the end of the Janam-sakhi there is an epilogue in which it is stated that the work was taken to Guru Gobind Singh for his seal of approval. Hoshiarpur — Hoshiarpur pronunciation is a city and a municipal corporation in Hoshiarpur district in the Doaba region of the Indian state of Punjab. It was founded, according to tradition, during the part of the fourth century.
In it was occupied by the forces of Maharaja Karanvir Singh and was united into the state of Punjab. Hoshiarpur has an elevation of metres. Hoshiarpur district is located in the north-east part of the Indian state of Punjab and it falls in the Jalandhar Revenue Division and is situated in the Bist Doab portion of the Doaba region.
Hoshiarpur shares a boundary with Kangra district, and Una district of Himachal Pradesh in the northeast, in the southwest, it borders Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar district, Jalandhar district, and Kapurthala district, and in the northwest it borders Gurdaspur district. As per provisional data of census, Hoshiarpur had a population ofout of which 88, were males and 80, were females, the literacy rate was As of India census, Hoshiarpur had a population of , males constitute Hoshiarpur has an literacy rate of Male literacy is The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was also called the Indian Empire and after issued passports under that name.
It lasted untilwhen the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence inamong other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in under the Treaty of Amiens.
Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between andthe kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
In general, the term British India had been used to also to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from to The term has also used to refer to the British in India. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
InEast Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, there were princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights.
Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control, the British also exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly princely states, the majority were very small. The conflict arose from a succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura in an Indian kingdom called Kuru.
It involved a number of ancient kingdoms participating as allies of the rival groups, the location of the battle is described as having occurred in Kurukshetra in the modern state of Haryana.
The narrative describes individual battles and deaths of heroes of both sides, military formations, war diplomacy, meetings and discussions among the characters. The chapters dealing with the war are considered amongst the oldest in the entire Mahabharata, the historicity of the war remains subject to scholarly discussions. Attempts have been made to assign a date to the Kurukshetra War. Popular tradition holds that the war marks the transition to Kaliyuga, Mahabharata, one of the most important Hindu epics, is an account of the life and deeds of several generations of a ruling dynasty called the Kuru clan.
Central to the epic is an account of a war took place between two rival families belonging to this clan. Kurukshetra, was the battleground on which war, known as the Kurukshetra War, was fought. Kurukshetra was also known as Dharmakshetra, or field of righteousness, Mahabharata tells that this site was chosen because a sin committed on this land was forgiven on account of the sanctity of this land.
The Kuru territories were divided into two and were ruled by Dhritarashtra and Yudhishthira of the Pandavas, ramachandran state that the Divergence of views regarding the Mahabharata war is due to the absence of reliable history of the ancient period.
This is also true of the period, where also there is no unanimity of opinion on innumerable issues. The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is subject to scholarly discussion, the existing text of the Mahabharata went through many layers of development, and mostly belongs to the period between c. According to Professor Alf Hiltebeitel, the Mahabharata is essentially mythological, Indian historian Upinder Singh has written that, Whether a bitter war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas ever happened cannot be proved or disproved.
It is possible there was a small-scale conflict, transformed into a gigantic epic war by bards. Some historians and archaeologists have argued that conflict may have occurred in about BCE. Despite the inconclusiveness of the data, attempts have been made to assign a date to the Kurukshetra War.
Popular tradition holds that the war marks the transition to Kaliyuga, a number of other proposals have been put forward, P.
Chamba Rumal – Wikipedia
Vartak calculates a date of October 16, BCE using planetary positions. There have been attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around BCE, the text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the poem must once have carried an immense tragic force.
Not being a unit, the extent of the region is the subject of debate. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive region of the Punjab known as the Majha region.
The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis and their language is called Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism, other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism and Buddhism. All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest, there are two main definitions of the Punjab region, the definition and the older — definition.
The third definition incorporates both the and the definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana, Using the definition, the Punjab region borders Kashmir to the north, Sindh and Rajasthan to the south, the Pashtun region and Balochistan to the west, and the Hindi belt to the east.
Accordingly, the Punjab region is diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains. Present day maps Major cities Using the definition of the Punjab region, some of the cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad.
Older — definition The older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire, According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division, the formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the camba and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.